Combatting Violence against Women

International and Regional Frameworks

Combating violence against women involves a concerted effort to prevent, address, and eradicate any form of violence, whether physical, psychological, or sexual, that disproportionately affects women. International and regional frameworks play a critical role in this endeavor, as they provide guidelines and standards that governments and organizations can follow to protect women's rights and promote gender equality. These frameworks often encompass legal instruments, conventions, and agreements that require signatory states to take concrete measures to prevent and respond to violence against women, recognizing the global nature of this issue and the importance of cross-border cooperation in advancing the cause of gender equality.


The United Nations Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women, CEDAW, is a treaty codified in 1979. It is one of the most important legally binding instruments for ending all forms of discrimination against women. Unlike declarations and resolutions, this convention is binding upon all states that have signed and ratified it and must be implemented. In the General Recommendations No. 12 and No. 19 it is highlighted, which articles of CEDAW are to be applied regarding VAW, further gender based violence gets explicitely defined.


Beijing Platform for Action – VAW

29. Prevent and eliminate all forms of violence against women and girls.


UN Special Rapporteur on Violence against Women

The Special Rapporteur on Violence against Women, its causes and its consequences was appointed in 1994 as proposed within the Vienna Declaration. The Special Rapporteur collects and analyzes data on violence against women in order to recommend measures to be taken at the international, regional and national level.


EP – 1 shelter place per 10.000 inhabitants

As early as 1986 the European Parliament issued a resolution concerning violence against women. Among other points, Article 26 of the Resolution recommends EU Member States to provide sufficient places in women’s shelters – the rate should be one family place per 10.000 inhabitants.


CoE – Required and minimum levels of service provision

The (CoE) minimum standarts (Directorate General of Human Rights and Legal Affairs, Council of Europe, Strasbourg, September 2008) is a unique study that addresses minimum standards which governments and service providers should achieve/implement in order to meet their international obligation to exercise due diligence to investigate and punish acts of violence, provide protection to victims and prevent violence against women in the first place. This makes the study unique.


European Charter – VAW

Article 22 – Gender Based Violence
Article 23 – Human Trafficking
Article 11 – The Employer Role
Article 21 – Safety and Security

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